A finishing carpenter friend of mine recommended I try to use Pythagoras’ Theorem when I asked him, out of desperation, for advice on a difficult math problem that I am stuck on.

When I reported no progress, he asked what other topics in math are named after people, after all, Pythagoras lived a long time ago.

So here’s a very simple list (for now not even in a good order). Please use the links to learn more about what is being named.

, denoting a method of calculation, is named afterAlgorithm Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorithm being his name in Latin). Basic example is theEuclidean algorithm , to calculate thegreatest common divisor (of two or more numbers)., or Fibonacci sequence, named afterFibonacci numbers Leonardo Pisano Bigollo , also called Leonardo Fibonacci. Each number in the sequence is the sum of the previous two numbers, starting with 0 and 1. This sequence begins0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, … - The
, the base of theEuler number natural logarithms , is named afterLeonard Euler . Often just “e”: 2.71828… Much more in the world of math isnamed Euler . , named afterCartesian coordinate system René Descartes . The grid with axes, usually called x and y.- The
, are named afterBernoulli numbers Jakob Bernoulli . They appear in series expansions of trigonometric functions. , named afterFermat’s theorem Pierre de Fermat . A method for finding maxima and minima of functions., named afterPascal’s triangle Blaise Pascal . The triangle arranges thebinomial coefficients .are named afterTaylor series Brook Taylor . These series represent mathematical functions as infinite sums of simple terms., also, called Newton–Raphson method, named afterNewton’s method Isaac Newton , andJoseph Raphson . Method to approximate a zero of a function., named afterGalois theory Évariste Galois . Allows proving such things as why there is no formula for the roots of a fifth degree polynomial equation, or why it is not possible totrisect all angles using acompass and straightedge .- The
, named afterLagrangian Joseph Lagrange . Functions that describe how dynamical systems change over time. More in maths isnamed Lagrange , named afterDirichlet’s principle Johann Dirichlet . If you have more items than containers, and distribute all items among the containers, then one container will have more than one item., named afterGaussian elimination Card Friedrich Gauss . An algoritm (see above) for solvingsystems of linear equations ., named afterHamiltonian path William Hamilton . A path in a graph that visits each vertex exactly once., named afterRiemann sum Bernhard Riemann . Method for approximating areas given by a curve. Much more in math isnamed Riemann ., named afterHilbert’s Nullstellensatz David Hilbert . Connecting algebra and geometry., named afterTuring machines Alan M. Turing . A simple reference model for computation.

There are many, many more, especially from the last century. For example, I left out the Tutte Graph. Wikipedia has a

To finish, I’ll list one of a different kind: the